Though passengers are conscious that airways fly to the locations they should journey to, whether or not or not it’s for enterprise, pleasure, or relational causes, they could not know that some are served by cargo-only flights; code-share providers, by which one other provider operates the plane; or constitution preparations, which allow airways to increase their attain to cities solely supportable by group or journey company bookings, notably throughout seasonal-demand intervals.
Performing within the capacities of overseer and coach, the writer skilled one such constitution flight operation-that of Austrian Airways in Cancun, Mexico-at the start of its Winter 2006-2007 schedule. Noticed was the season’s inaugural flight.
1. Mexican Civil Aviation Laws
Austrian Airways was dealt with by Passenger Dealing with Providers/Maca in Cancun. In accordance with Mexican Civil Aviation Laws, all floor dealing with firms had been required to stick to a few rules.
They first wanted to submit a letter from the dealt with provider, verifying that the bottom firm in query was correctly educated within the areas of Flight Plan Coordination, Weight and Stability, Ramp Procedures, Refueling Procedures, and Passenger Service. The letter additionally wanted to point the names of the employees truly educated in these areas.
They secondly wanted to own copies of the relevant, aircraft-specific operations handbook(s). Within the case of the Cancun flight, it was the one regarding the Boeing 767.
Lastly, they wanted to file a handbook check-in plan, with the required seat charts, boarding passes, and different provides.
2. Floor Operations Coaching
So as to fulfill the coaching requirement, the writer reviewed the Cancun Station Operation Plan, inclusive of the passenger check-in and Centralized Load Management (CLC) procedures, with the dealing with firm’s Obligation Supervisor shortly after his arrival in Mexico, and held two coaching lessons with its employees the next day.
The primary, the two.5-hour Austrian Airways Load Sheet Familiarization Coaching, included an summary of the Centralized Load Management (CLC) procedures, load plans, the creation of an inbound load plan based mostly upon the day’s precise container/pallet distribution message (CPM), and the collective completion of a handbook load sheet instance, copies of which had been positioned on file on the Cancun station.
Throughout the second session, held after the flight departed, the writer once more reviewed the CLC procedures with the three employees members who had been unable to attend the morning class.
3. Passenger Verify-In
Passenger check-in and boarding occurred in Terminal 1. A small passenger service workplace, positioned behind the Mexicana de Aviacion check-in counters, was positioned within the Vuelos Nacionales (Home Flights) part of Terminal 2, whereas the Operations workplace was located behind the safety checkpoint and on the ramp facet of Terminal 2. A complimentary, periodically run passenger shuttle related the 2 buildings from designated terminal frontage departure factors. Terminal 3, supposed for worldwide flights, was scheduled for March 2007 completion at the moment.
The Passenger Dealing with Providers/Maca Obligation Supervisor of Austrian Airways’ Cancun flight operations, a licensed Plane Dispatcher, had amassed 15 years within the airline/aviation business and took nice pleasure in adhering to rules.
Passenger check-in was positioned within the not too long ago reopened, however downsized, hurricane-damaged Terminal 1, which was then solely occupied by constitution carriers, akin to Miami Air, First Alternative, Air Transat, and Corsairfly.
Passenger check-in itself commenced three hours earlier than the scheduled 1640 departure time of the flight at counters that had been positioned only some yards from the terminal entrance. All passengers, in accordance with Mexican safety rules, had been required to have their baggage manually inspected previous to precise check-in.
5 check-in positions had been used: one for Amadeus (enterprise) Class and 4 for the economic system cabin. The Passenger Service Supervisor and the enterprise class check-in agent spoke Spanish, English, and German, and seat choice, offered by the MaestroDCS system, together with any licensed upgradings, had been coordinated with the Tui tour consultant, whose firm chartered the flight.
Verify-in itself was completed with the MaestroDCS system. Throughout the course of, a passenger requested a wheelchair and it was instantly furnished.
4. Boeing 767
The Cancun flight was operated by the prolonged vary model of the Boeing 767-300, the second of the 2 stretched-fuselage, larger capability variants, whose common design options included the next.
Common Description: A widebody, twin-engine, cantilever, low-wing monoplane of semi-monocoque building supposed for industrial passenger and cargo and navy functions.
Fuselage: Of aluminum alloy, fail-safe building.
Wings: Employed superior aluminum alloy skins and featured 31 levels of sweepback and 6 levels of dihedral.
Tail: Typical empennage with swept surfaces on each its horizontal and vertical tails.
Touchdown Gear: Hydraulically-retracted, tricycle undercarriage with a Menasco twin-wheel, which retracted ahead, and two, four-wheeled, Cleveland Pneumatic essential gear models, which retracted inward. Each had been geared up with Honeywell wheels and brakes.
Engines: Two aerodynamic, pod-encased excessive bypass ratio turbofans pylon-mounted to the wing vanguard undersides.
Design Options: Changing the 727 with a bigger capability, widebody design, it was however optimized for 727-type route sectors with one-stop transcontinental vary functionality. It employed computer-aided design (CAD) throughout its preliminary growth section, whose prices had been diminished due to parallel 757 growth. Though it was not thought of a single-aisle plane, it launched a narrower fuselage cross-section than that utilized by earlier widebody sorts, yielding a number of benefits, together with a discount in parasite drag; a twin-aisle cabin, by which passengers had been by no means multiple seat from the window or the aisle; gate and ramp compatibility at smaller, 727-like airports; and superior, lightweight aluminum alloy flight surfaces, particularly the mounted wing vanguard panel, the spoilers, the ailerons, the mounted wing trailing edge panel, the undercarriage doorways, the elevators, and the rudder.
Extra advantages had been derived from the usage of a supercritical wing, akin to a excessive facet ratio, an aft-loaded part, the event of extra raise for much less drag than any earlier airfoil, 22-percent higher thickness than that employed by previous-decade airliners, a lighter and less complicated construction, and extra wing-integral gas tank capability.
Powered by two excessive bypass ratio turbofans, it was capable of supply larger thrust, decrease particular gas consumption, a diminished noise footprint, decrease upkeep prices, and improved reliability.
Just like the 757 then concurrently designed, it was operated by a two-person cockpit crew.
Through the use of the beforehand dry center-section gas tank, Boeing was ready supply an increased-range model that required few different modifications, but its inherent fuselage stretchability, the higher capabilities of its current wing and tail, its 757 widespread pilot sort ranking, and its prolonged vary twin-engine operation certification enabled carriers to substitute it for DC-10 and L-1011 plane.
It provided the optimum vary and capability for Austrian Airways’ transatlantic constitution operations to and from Mexico.
Powered by two 60,900 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney 4060 excessive bypass ratio turbofans, the plane working the flight, registered OE-LAX, was first delivered in 1992 and bore serial quantity 27095. Accommodating 30 Amadeus enterprise class passengers in a six-abreast, two-two-two, configuration and 200 in economic system in a seven-abreast association with one extra seat within the center financial institution, it featured the next most weights: 130,634-kilo zero-fuel, 145,149-kilo touchdown, 186,880-kilo take off, and 187,333-kilo ramp.
Working as Flight OS 9573 from Vienna, Austria, and Varadero, Cuba, the plane landed at 1515 and taxied into the non-jetbridge-equipped parking place 1, as scheduled, at 1520. It was chocked and the protection cones had been correctly positioned. A stair truck was instantly positioned at door L2 and, in accordance with Mexican rules, marshaled into this place. The passengers disembarked after a brief session with the Chef de Cabine (chief purser).
In accordance with the inbound container/pallet distribution message (CPM), the next Cancun-destined unit load gadgets (ULDs) had been on board: an empty DPE in place 11L, baggage AKEs in positions 22L, 23L, and 24L, and an empty DQF in place 43. Aside from the final one, all had been positioned within the ahead maintain and had been single, or half-width, containers. The latter, within the aft maintain, was a double, or full-width, one.
6. Departure Gate
All 5 departure gates had been positioned instantly up the escalator, via the safety checkpoint, and a brief stroll away. Two snack bars and two outlets comprised the terminal’s passenger comfort amenities.
Due to the proximity of the plane parking positions, buses or cell lounges weren’t vital, and entry ramps led from the departures degree to the ramp.
Sequential boarding of the departing flight, working as OS 9574, commenced at 1545, with bulletins in each English and German, and entailed pre-boarding passengers, adopted by these in Amadeus enterprise and economic system class, the latter by row numbers, starting on the rear of the plane.
Boarding management was computerized, with seat numbers entered into the system. After the final passenger handed via the gate at 1612, the overall declaration and all required lists had been delivered to the cabin crew. For the reason that Varadero station had modified some seats, the seat occupied message (or SOM) of through-passengers to Vienna was not totally correct and resulted in a number of discrepancies, however these had been rapidly rectified by native floor employees.
7. Centralized Load Management
In accordance with the Centralized Load Management process for constitution flight operations, the cockpit crew despatched the ultimate gas figures to Vienna via the plane communication and reporting system (ACARs), whereas the native operations employees stuffed out and faxed a preprinted sheet with passenger totals subdivided by class and zone, together with the variety of baggage and their weights, all of which was furnished by the MaestroDCS check-in system and telexed to the Terminal 2 operations workplace. Again-up sheets had been obtainable within the occasion of final minute adjustments (LMCs) or an ACARs failure.
Though preliminary problem with the fax machine delayed the sending of the data to Vienna on the day of my go to, lacking Atlantic tracks within the meteorology folder induced a brief, 15-minute departure delay.
All of the members of the Cancun floor operations employees had been skilled, devoted, and motivated, and clearly possessed appreciable information and expertise. As a result of the dealing with firm’s operations workplace needed to be relocated from Terminal 1 to its then-current Terminal 2 facility on account of hurricane harm, the logistical problem may solely be met with ramp car conveyance, however the operation was in any other case properly orchestrated. The Maca responsibility supervisor was a superb asset to the station and his workforce, and the usage of the German language on the check-in counter was a plus to Austrian Airways’ passengers.
Its Cancun constitution flight operation that day couldn’t have been extra seamlessly executed.